They make fine wine and the loaf of bread to go with it. Tiny single-celled members of the fungus kingdom, yeast cells may be one of the oldest domesticated organisms. Throw in some bacteria and you have the cheese as well.
Yeast and bacteria have been used since ancient time to produce our food and drink through fermentation. They have also played a role more recently in the production of various drugs including insulin and antibiotics, whether through natural pathways or using genetically modified strains. In just the past few years, yeast has been modified to make fragrance molecules. A few startup companies including Gingko Bioworks, Amyris, and Allylix propose to develop designer yeasts for production of test tube patchouli, vetiver, and even rose fragrances that can be scaled up to industrial-size vats. Hard-to-find fragrances such as mango, apricot, and coconut are also in the plans. Working with large companies like Robertet and Firmenich, they describe these products as cultured fragrances.